Tuesday, December 25, 2012


Ham Naheen Chhodenge
We have only a few examples of friendship in our scriptures - Raam and Nishaad in Raamaayan; Krishn and Arjun and Drupad and Drone, and Duryodhan and Karn in Mahaabhaarat, and, Krishn and Sudaamaaa. All friendships are unique in their own sense. Let us see what types of friendships they are....

(1) Raam and Nishaad
Nishaad appears in Raamaayan first time when Raam, Lakshman and Seetaa go to exile and want to cross Gangaa River. Guh Nishaad comes to know that Raam is coming in his country, so he comes with his people carrying lots of food items. He invites Raam to come to his city, but Raam politely declines His offer saying that He was in exile that is why he could not enter his city. He serves Raam very well during the night, and next day in the morning when Raam asks him to take Him across Gangaa River, he very cleverly requests Him to wash His feet before embarking on his boat - "I have heard that even a stone turned into a woman by just a touch of your feet's dust, then what is wood for it? She was Muni's wife so she went to her husband. This is the only means of my living and I do not know another work, so if you want to go across Gangaa, ask me first to wash your feet. and I do not want any money for this service." Raam also smiled hearing this, so He politely replied - "You do whatever you like so that your boat does not disappear. Now you make haste because we are getting late to go across Gangaa." Remembering whose name just once, takes one across this Universe, the same Raam is looking at Nishaad to take Him across Gangaa.- how beautiful expression is this? When Raam wants to give him something for his services, but he says - "I have done lots of service to other people, but today I have got my real wages. I will gladly accept whatever you will give me when you will be back."

(2) Krishn and Arjun
Although Krishn and Arjun were cousins, but they were  more friends than cousins. What Krishn left doing for Arjun which He did not do for him? He helped Arjun to marry Draupadee - otherwise perhaps Karn could have hit the aim and married Draupadee. By His tactics, He became the charioteer of Arjun and guided his chariot through all the days of war. Even during the war period He kept Arjun's vows (by hiding the Sun and then making it appear) at the appropriate time, and instructing him at time to time helping him in winning the war. In fact His instructions start right from the first moment of the MBH war day by preaching Geetaa to him when he sat down in his chariot dropping his bow in the chariot and declaring - "I will not fight."

(3) Drone and Drupad.
Drone was the son of Muni Bharadwaaj and Drupad was the son of the King Prishat. Prishat and Muni Bbaradwaaj were very fast friends, so Drupad used to come to Bharadwaaj's Aashram often with his father and used to play with Bharadwaaj's son Drone. Thus they got educated together by Bharadwaaj Jee. In those days Drupad used to say to Drone - "Whatever is mine, half of it is yours." Although their friendship was good, but later, with time it faded to this extent that Drupad refused to accept Drone as his friend, So Drone defeated him through his disciples - Kaurav and Paandav, and then Drupad performed a Yagya to get a son - Dhrishtdyumn. who could kill Drone.

(4) Duryodhan and Karn
The first time Duryodhan and Karn meet in Rang Shaalaa of Kaurav and Paandav whenthey were demonstrating their skills in weapons to King Dhritraashtra and people of Hastinaapur. In order to declare Arjun the best archer of the world, Dronaachaarya stopped Karn to participate in that demonstration on the basis of that he was neither a prince or a king of any kingdom nor knew his Kul (family). A Soot-Putra could not be allowed to compete with Kshatriya princes. This enraged Duryodhan and considered him a future enemy of Paandav, so immediately he appointed him the King of Ang Desh, but something else was written in his Destiny. Karn became so grateful to him that up to the last breath he remained the friend of Duryodhan on the basis that "He helped me when everybody had neglected me and insulted me, only he supported me at that time."

Just before the MBH war began, in spite of knowing that he was Kuntee's eldest son and thus was the eldest Paandav, and if he could join his brothers he could be appointed the King of Hastinaapur;  he did not move from his friendship with Duryodhan. He gave his life for him only by fighting from his side, and by using the Power given by Indra in exchange of his Kavach and Kundal on Ghatotkach. Bheeshm did not allow him to fight under his Commandership (that happened to be 10 days), he even tolerated this insult also. Since he was appointed the King of Ang Desh, and was with Duryodhan, he was always insulted by Duryodhan's companions but he tolerated all that insult too, just because of the friendship of Duryodhan.

(5) Krishn and Sudaamaa
This story is of Bhagavaan and His real childhood friend. Sudaamaa was not His relative in any way, he was just real childhood friend of His Gurukul. It is said that Krishn ived n Grukul only for 8 months as he had finished His education in 8 months only. So he had the friendship of 8 months only. After that krish went on His own way and Sudaamaa went on his own way.

Later Sudaamaa got married, had children but remained very poor all the time. Once his wife heard that Krshn was Sudaamaa's childhood friend and He had become the King of Dwaarakaa, so she asked Sudaamaa to go to Him and ask something so that they could feed their children comfortably. First Sudaamaa did not like the idea, but later he got ready to go to Him, in the expectation that at least he would meet his friend after long time. Sudaamaa's wife gave him some Chivadaa (beaten rice) as a gift for his friend and sent him to see his friend.

Sudaamaa went to Dwaarakaa and met Krishn. Krishn welcomed him so warmly that everybody was surprised to see His behavior with His friend. Even Rukminee was also astonished to see behaving Krishn like this. Their friendship was like this that neither Sudaamaa asked anything from Krishn, nor Krishn asked Krishn anything about his needs. When Sudaamaa came back to his home, he found a big palace and many servants and maids working there. His wife and children were also roaming around in rich clothes and happy. He was surprised to see that how Krishn knew what he went for?

This is the best example of real friendship - Na Kuchh Tumane Kahaa, Na Kuchh Hamane Kahaa.... Phr Bhee Baat Ban Hee Gayee." - neither you said any thing, nor I said anything, still everything went well.

(1) Raam and Nishaad's friendship is never seen anywhere else, other than a brief description in the scriptures or literature, so it is difficult to decided how Nishaad was His friend and how Raam treated him later, and thus difficult to analyze.

(2) Krishn and Arjun's friendship, if seen minutely, was not a real friendship. Arjun was His cousin, besides Krishn says in Geetaa, "Among Paandav, I am Arjun." Thus Arjun was Krishn Himself.

(3) Drone and Drupad's friendship could have been a good friendship, but the way Drupad treated him very badly. So their  became was a black spot on the name of friendship. No friendship insults each other to the point that one has to ask a son to kill one's friend.

(4) Even Duryodhan and Karn's friendship was not at all true friendship. They had never met, in childhood or at any other time. This friendship was born under the shade of gratitude. This friendship was not based on mutual agreement but was based on gratefulness. Karn was only grateful to Duryodhan for being accepted in the society to the extent that he under the weight of it, he could not think of anything else than to work for the interests of Duryodhan. This was not a true friendship.

(5) The last examples of friendship, the friendship of Krishn and Sudaamaa is the example of true friendship. It can be compared only with Drone and Drupad  friendship as it also developed from the childhood times - Gurukul, but it contrasts with the friendship between how Krishn treated Sudaamaa and how Drupad treated Drone, when Drone came to Drupad to ask only for one cow from his share of Drupad's kingdom. This frendship could be developed in a good friendship, but ..... mad with power, King Drupad humiliated him by telling him that the friendship cold exist only among the similar people not unequal people. By contrast, Krishna never forgot His friend and treated Sudaamaa with utmost respect, although their friendship was only of 8 months.

By His example, Krishn is teaching us about how to treat one another even though one is utterly poor and the another is the Master of Tri-Lok. . Krishn-Sudaamaa friendship is an immortal example of real, non-materialistic friendship. It is a perpetual symbolic definition of real friendship.

Lord Brahma replied, "O Tulasee, Sudaamaa was a partial expansion of Krishn and was one of Krshn's cowherd boyfriends in Golok. As a result of a curse by Raadhaa he is presently living on earth among the Daanav (demons). His name is Shankhchood. He is very energetic and no one can compare with him in strength. While living in Go-Lok, he was very attracted to you and wanted to marry you. But because he feared Raadhaa, he did not make any overtures."

Sushma Gupta

Saturday, December 22, 2012

Changing Varn Role in Ancient Indian History

I love to read Mahaabhaarat. As it might be supernaturally correct and may be shockingly a fiction. But still I love to read it. Because there are so many good things to read in it, so many strange things to read in it, so many wonderful things to read in it and so on. A few examples are cited here where people have changed their role by changing their Varn. Although it is not good or strange or wondrous thing in this age, but still it is worth noticing and knowing. So let us start --

(1) Parashuraam
From Braahman to Kshatriya. Parashuraam Jee was the son of a Rishi named Jamadagni. Read the story of his birth  here. He was there during the reign of Sahastrabaahu (or Kaartveerya Arjun). Once Sahastrabaahu happened to be in the Aashram of Jamadagni and was astonished to see the powers of his cow Nandinee. He asked him to give that cow to him, but Jamadagni did  not give her to him. When he wanted to take her forcefully, she created an army from her body and pushed the King's army back. This filled his sons with rage, so they took the cow away and killed Jamadagni Jee. When Parashuraam Jee came home, he killed the King and his all sons except four. Then he waged the war against all Kshatriya and emptied Prithvi from Kshatriya 21 times.

Strangely enough the same Braahman warrior Parashuraam who emptied Prithvi from Kshatriya 21 times, admits his defeat at the hands of proper Kshatriya Raam and Bheeshm. He fought with Raam because he did not tolerate Kshatriya. For the same reason when he came in Seetaa's Swayamvar, all Kshatriya kings got frightened.  Although he had heard that Vishnu had incarnated on Earth, he just wanted to test Raam. And for the same reason he did not fight with Him with weapons, he just handed over his bow to Him and said - "Show me if you can handle this bow." As Parashuraam Jee handed over his bow, it itself went in His hands and that satisfied him that Raam was really the incarnation of Vishnu.

He did fight with Bheeshm. Although Bheeshm did not have to marry Ambaa because everybody knew that he had taken the vow not to marry his whole life, still Ambaa wanted to marry him. But Parashuraam Jee was angry because Bheeshm did not obey his Guru, but then Parashuraam jee had to accept his defeat at the hands of his disciple - Bheeshm.

(2) Dronaachaarya
How Dronaachaarya got converted from Braahman to Kshatriya. Drone was the son of Rishi Bharadwaaj. After finishing his education he could not get any wok as a Guru to teach his disciples. He was married to Kripee (Kripaachaarya's twin sister). Then they had a son also - Ashwatthaamaa. He was so poor that he could not even arrange milk for his son. He got frustrated by his living style, so he tried to see his childhood friend King Drupad to get a cow for his son, but he clearly refused to accept him as a friend. This refusal sowed a seed of revenge in his heart and he started looking for the ways to defeat him.

He needed money also to take care of his family. Fortunately Parashuraam Jee was donating his all wealth, so he went with the idea that he would get some in alms, but when he reached there he told him that he had already donated his all wealth, and he had only some arms and military arts knowledge, if he wanted that he could give it to him happily. Drone got ready and he learnt many good things from him. Fortunately at the same time Bheeshm was looking for good Aachaarya to train Kaurav and Paandav. He chose him and appointed him as the Aachaarya of Kaurav and Paandav to tech them military arts. He was one of the best warriors of Kaurav army in MBH war.

(3) Kripaachaarya
Kripaachaarya was the son of Maharshi Sharadwaan from an Apsaraa. That is how he was a Braahman.Sharadwaan came to know that his son was growing in Hastinaapur, so he went there in disguise and trained him in all four types military arts. That is how a Braahman became a Kshatriya. For some time he taught weaponry to Kaurav and Paandav too.

(4) Ashwatthaamaa
From Braahman to Kshatriya. Being the son of a Braahman father Dronaachaarya he should be a Braahman, but since his father was teaching Kaurav and Paandav military arts at the time of his childhood, he also learnt the same from his father along with them. And thus he became Kshatriya by Karm. Over the years living with Kaurav, he became a good friend of Duryodhan. Like him he also developed a kind of hatred towards Paandav. Not after long MBH war broke. And as Drone, his father, fought from Kaurav's side, so he also fought from their side. He was immortal. Duryodhan counted on the following seven warriors - (1) Bheeshm - he had the boon of Ichchhaa Mrityu; (2) Ashwatthaamaa - he was immortal; (3) Drone - he had many Divine weapons;  (4) Kripaa - he was immortal. Among others were Karn, Dushaasan and Jayadrath. That is how his role of Varn changed.

(5) Vishwaamitra
Vishwaamitra was a Kshatriya, a King. How he became a Braahman from a Kshatriya, it is an interesting story. His real name was Vishwarath. He was the son of King Gaadhi and Maamaa of Maharshi Jamadagni and thus he was related to Parashuraam also. Read the story of his birth  here.

Once a long famine happened in his kingdom so he came out to see his people. On the way he happened to be in Vashishth Jee's Aashram. When he knew this that he was near Vashishth Jee's Aashram, he went to pay his respects to him. Vashishth Jee offered him his hospitality. Vishwarath thought that how this Braahman will entertain so large army of mine, so he politely refused, but Vashishth Jee insisted on his hospitality and he agreed.

Vashishth Jee had Kaamdhenu cow, so he requested her to entertain the King and his army. Vishwarath was surprised to see the cow's powers. He asked Vashishth Jee to give that cow to him, because he thought that this type of cow should be with a King, not with a Braahman, Vashishth Jee refused to give her to him because she fulfilled all the needs of thousands of Rishi living in his Aashram. Vishwarath got angry at this and he wanted to forcefully take her but the cow produced her army from her body and that army killed the King's army.

Vishwarath did penance to please Shiv and asked all kinds of weapons to give to him, which Shiv Jee gave to him. He came to Vashishth Jee again and used his weapons to fight with him but Vashishth Jee made his all weapons useless by his Dand (scepter). Vishwarath understood that Brahm Power is greatest of all, so he started doing penance again. He did penance for several thousands years and at last got the status of Brahmarshi. Since then he got the name of Vishwaamitra. That is how he became the Braahman from a Kshatriya.

(6) Yudhishthir
From Kshatriya to Braahman. Braahman's characteristics are great knowledge, forgiveness, charity, compassion etc. Even being a Kshatriya, because of these qualities, he was like a Braahman. There are several incidents of his such qualities in MBH. Forgiving Duryodhan for the incident of poisoning Bheem and Laakshaa Griha incident, giving all chances to Duryodhan at the time of Dice game inspite of knowing that he was cheating, freeing Duryodhan from Gandharv Raaj are some of them.

He has compassion for others. When Paandav go to forest, hey are followed by thousands of Braahman and students. Just to feed them, as he considers feeding them his Dharm, he pleases Soorya Dev and gets an Akshaya Paatra to feed those Braahman who were dependent on him.

His knowledge is manifest when Bheem is caught  by the King Naush (in the form of a python) and Nahush asks him some questions. He answered them and freed both, the King Nahush, as well as his brother Bheem. Another time his knowledge is manifest when his four brothers die at the shore of a lake where they went to bring some water to drink. They did not answer Yaksh's questions there, so the Yaksh killed all of them. Only Yudhishthir replied his questions and brought his brothers alive and was blessed with the boon of not being recognized in incognito period. All these qualities make him a Braahman.

(7) Bheeshm
From Kshatriya to Braahman. Bheeshm was also a Kshatriya. He was trained like a Kshatriya too. Although he fought several fights and nobody could defeat him, but by heart he was a Braahman. He taught his father's two sons - Chitraangad and Vichitraveerya, and then Vichitraveerya's three sons - Dhritraashtra, Paandu and Vidur. Later his delivered so many teachings to Paandav, including Krishn, when he was lying on the bed of arrows, and was waiting for Uttaraayan to die. He loved justice and never tolerated injustice. Whatever he had to tolerate in his life, he tolerated it because of his sincerity to the kingdom. He gave Vishnu Sahastra Naam to people.

Sushma Gupta

Thursday, December 20, 2012

Some Misconceptions

People have many misconceptions about several incidents mentioned in our scriptures. They might be due to several reasons, but unless those incidents are read carefully, those misconceptions cannot be removed and will be continued for several generations. I wish to write here some of those misconceptions so that people might be clear in their ideas.

Did Real Seetaa Enter the Fire?
It is a million dollar question? Why? In Hindi speaking North India, where Tulasee's Raam Charit Maanas is more popular than any other Raaamaayan, especially in UP, Bihaar and Madhya Pradesh areas, one may rarely find any educated house which does not have a copy of the Maanas. That is why people have only this information which is written in this Raamaayan, about Raam, Seetaa and others. Although this Maanas is written in Avadhee language but it comes with Hindi and English translation, so it is not much problem for the people to read it. People can know that which Seetaa entered Fire (Agni) and why did She have to pass this Fire test.

Raam never wanted that His Seetaa should be touched by anybody else, so He kept a shadow Seetaa in the real Seetaa's place, He  deposited His own Seetaa with Agni Dev and Agni Dev gave Him a shadow Seetaa. Since that Seetaa who was abducted by Raavan and came from Lankaa was not His own Seetaa, he had to take His Seetaa back from Agni Dev, and that is what He did, which people thought that Raam was testing her purity. Thus He took His real Seetaa back by showing Seetaa passing Fire test.

While another Raamaayan, which we claim that it is original, is written by Vaalmeeki Jee. It is written in Sanskrit language and although its Hindi and English translations are available, still is not at all popular among people. This Raamaayan say that when Raam called Seetaa from Lankaa, Raam asked her to go anywhere She liked as He could not keep Her since She lived in another man's house for so .long. Rejected and dejected Seetaa then decided to immolate herself. She prayed Agni Dev that if She was pure Agni Dev should protect Her. Since She was pure, Agni Dev appeared bringing Her with him and proving that Seetaa was pure.

Thus Vaalmeeki's Seetaa was original Seetaa who was abducted by Raavan, and wanted to immolate Herself because of Raam's rejection, but praying Agni Dev that if She was chaste, Agni Dev should protect Her. And since She was chaste, Agni Dev himself came carrying Her and handed Her over  to Raam proving Her chastity. So there are two versions.

Who Helped Draupadee in Dice Court?
Everybody believes that when Dushaasan pulled Draupadee's dress in the Dice court, she called Krishn (or Bhagavaan) and Krishn came and helped her extending her cloth to indefinite length that Dushaasan got tired pulling it and failed in his mission. There are two contradictory stories about this.

When Krishn killed Shishupaal at the time of Raajsooya Yagya of Yudhishthir, His index finger was cut with Chakra and Draupadee immediate torn her royal cloth in a strip and tied it on Krishn's finger. At that time Krishn said - "I have become grateful to you. But I will pay your debt in the way that the whole world will see it." (This incident is not recorded in MBH by Vyaas Jee)  With this reference people also believe that when Draupadee called Krishn (or Bhagavaan), Krishn came and helped her at that time and of course the whole world saw this.

But at another place, Krishn Himself said to her - "I did not know anything about this. If I had known this, this event had not taken place. I was at the war with fake Krishn. He was challenging me so I was there to accept his challenge."

Then who helped Draupadee in her difficult time? With Krishn's statement it seems that certainly Krishn did not help Draupadee. And how Krishn can tell lie? But somebody did it, then who did it?

Who Killed Bheeshm
People know that Shikhandee killed Bheeshm, but it is not so. It is true that Shikhandee was born to kill Bheeshm, but he himself did not kill Bheeshm. In Duryodhan's army, Ashwatthaamaa and Kripaachaarya were immortal, and  Bheeshm had the boon of Ichchhaa Mrityu from his father, so he also could not be killed by anybody, of course unless he himself wanted to die. So how a small warrior Shikhandee could kill him? Let us go back to original incident.

Since Shaantanu ded early leaving his two sons very young, Bheeshm took care of them. One of the, Chitraangad died early so Bheeshm decided to marry Vichitraveerya to Kaashee's three princesses. Two princesses of them accepted Vichitraveerya but the eldest princess Ambaa did not accept him as her husband and expressed her desire to marry Bheeshm. Bheeshm could not marry her as he was bound to his vow to Satyavatee's father. Ambaa felt insulted by Bheeshm, and she vowed that she would become the reason of Bheeshm's death (not that she herself will kill Bheeshm). For this she pleased Shiv Jee and got this boon from him.

On the other side, Drupad had no child so he also pleased Shiv Jee to give him a son. Shiv Jee bestowed this boon to him too. But when he had the child, he had a daughter, not a son, whom he named Shikhandin. He had faith in Shiv Jee so he brought his daughter up as a son and even married her with a girl. The girl seeing that she was married to a girl, went back to her father and reported him about the matter. Her father did not believe her. Drupad asked him to send his courtesans to test his girl's masculinity. Seeing all this Shikhandin ran away from her palace, but met a Yaksh on the way who gave her his masculinity for the time being.  He came back as a man and proved himself.

But this Shikhandee was still a woman for Bheeshm, because he knew her story, so when Shikhandee stood before Bheeshm, he did not fight with him, because he treated him as a woman and according to the war rules set by him only a man could not fight with a woman. Taking the advantage of this Arjun aimed many arrows at him till he fell down from the chariot. That is how it was not Shikhandee, but Arjun killed Bheeshm.

Did Dhrishtdyumn Really Kill Drone?
The similar rumor is in fashion that Dhrishtdyumn killed Drone, because Dhrishtdyum was born to kill Drone - King Drupad performed a Yagya even to get him with the aim of killing Drone, but did he really kill him? No. If one reads Mahaabhaarat carefully, Dhrishtdyumn killed only a dead body of Drone, not the live Drone.

When Drone heard from Bheem that Ashwatthaamaa was killed, he did not believe him. Angrily he started killing the Paandav army in thousands. Seeing this killing many great Rishi came to him and said - "Now you are killing people and animals un-righteously, come to eternal path. Your hour has come." Hearing the Rishi, remembering Bheem's words and seeing Dhrishtdyumn in front of him, Drone became indifferent from battle. He asked then Yudhishthir whether his son died or not, because he knew that Yudhishthir would not lie even for the kingdom of Tri-Lok. Krishn had already told Yudhishthir that if Drone had fought even half a day more, he will destroy your whole army, so Yudhishthir told lie to Drone - "Yes".

Drone believed him and he just sad on his chariot sad, dropping his weapons. He was extremely sad. Seeing him in this condition, Dhrishtdyumn ran to kill Drone. Drone wanted to counteract his arrow but his all weapons had left him. Still he fought with Dhrishtdyumn. After a while Drone felt weaker. He had already killed 24,000 Kshatriya and then 100,000 more. Then Bheem said - "For whom you have left your Braahman Dharm, he is lying dead in the battlefield." Hearing this Drone sat down and went in meditation. He left his body. He shone like two Suns in the sky. Only 5 people could see him going to Param Dhaam, nobody else, because all were unconscious about this, including Dhrishtdyumn. These five people were Sanjaya, Arjun, Ashwatthaamaa, Krishn and Yudhishthir. When Drone had gone then only he came to senses. Although all rebuked him for his action but he dragged the lifeless body of Drone and severed his head from his body.

Thus these are some of the several misconception among public which I have tried to remove here.

Sushma Gupta

Win Your Enemies

Our Hindu Dharm and its scriptures, one to all, always stress on control on senses. Why? Because this control on senses helps you to attain Moksh - one of the four Purushaarth - Moksh (salvation). There are four Purushaarth - Arth (wealth or money), Kaam (desires or pleasures), Dharm (Punya and merits) and Moksh (Salvation) - in this order; easily and not doing so, one has to suffer in this world unnecessarily for a long time.

Chaanakya on 6 Enemies
Chaanakya also says that Arth is the most important thing in the life. Why? Because, the other two Purushaarth (sustaining the life and performing Dharm actions) are dependent on Arth only. Without money, neither one cannot sustain himself and his family, nor he can perform any Dharm action (Punya). And without doing these both, one cannot get Moksh. To save money to perform Dharm actions, one must save some money after sustaining himself. And to save the money, one needs to control his five senses (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin whose function is sight, sound, smell, taste and touch respectively) to become Jitendriya (one who has won his senses) to save oneself from the 6 most important, dangerous and common enemies of a human being. If he could not become Jitendriya, he will be spending his whole money to satisfy his desires only, so much so that he will have to earn money by unfair means.

These 6 enemies always thwart a human being when he is on right path.They are Kaam (desire and lust), Krodh (anger), Lobh (greed or avarice), Moh (illusion), Mad (pride) and Maatsarys (envy) - Chaanakya lists them like this - . lust, anger, greed, vanity, haughtiness, and overjoy. Among these 6 enemies, the first 3 enemies are more powerful than the rest of the 3. It is the Kaam (lust) which is the most powerful enemy. If somehow we can control our desires we can do much better toward achieving our goal. But the problem is that our desires are always on increase, and as many desires we have, the difficulties increase to achieve our goal.

Geetaa also says the same thing - Desires is the root cause of everything - to commit sin, to bring obstacles to achieve our goal, in being peaceful etc etc. When our desire is not fulled, we become angry, An angry mind cannot think properly. As he wants to fulfill his desire by any means, and when he does not find any means (money or anything) he runs after acquiring that means and adopts illegal or sinful means to acquire it and tries to fulfill it by that sinful means. Since there is no end of desires, he continues to run after fulfilling them. As soon as his one desire is fulfilled, another one arises and thus the cycle goes on.  If all these senses are kept under control one can attain the final Purushaarth - Moksh easily.

Chaanakya (Kautilya) in his Arth Shaastra, in its chapter 6 also gives some examples from our Puraan, as who became the victim of these enemies and what happened to them. They lost everything including their lives - "...King Dandakya of the Bhoja Dynasty making a lascivious attempt on a Braahman maiden perished along with his kingdom and relations. So also Karaal, the Videha. Likewise Janamejaya under the influence of anger against Braahmans as well as Taaljangh against the family of Bhrigus. Ravana unwilling under the influence of vanity to restore a stranger's wife; as well as Duryodhan to part with his portion of his kingdom suffered the same consequences. Thus these and other several kings falling the prey to the aggregate of the six enemies, Ambarisha of Jaamdagnya, famous for his restraint of the organ sense, as well as Naabhaag long enjoyed the Earth."
[Taken from  Arthshastra - the Science of Polity, by BK Chaturvedi, page 15]

He also says that if a man can protect himself from these 6 enemies, only he is wise. In other words it is called self-discipline. We will read the stories of those people here which have been referred by Chaanakya

(1) King Dand (Lust)
Daandakya name is not available anywhere, but with this reference Dand name is available. This story comes in Vaalmeeki Raamaayan, Uttar Kaand. The King Dand, the grandson of Manu (Manu's son was Ikshwaaku, and Ikshwaaku's son was Dand) once carried off the daughter of Daitya Guru Shukraachaarya (Bhaargav), named Arajaa, forcefully from a forest with evil intent was eventually ruined and lost his kingdom. He was cursed by Shukraachaarya Jee that within 7 days he would lose his kingdom, he people will be killed and his kingdom will be covered with dust. According to that curse, he was buried with his kingdom under a shower of dust. This place was later named as Dandak Van under his name. This was the place where Raam lived in His exile period.

(2) Karaala, the Vaideh (Lust)
I could not find this name and his story.

(3) Janamejaya (Anger)
His story comes in Mahaabhaarat but nowhere it is written there that he got angry at a Braahman.
[Any idea where this story can be found?]

His father Pareekshit's story is also similar to his story (see below). He also got angry at a Braahman (Shameek Rishi) and bagged the curse of his son Shringee Rishi to be bitten by Takshak Naag on the 7th day from that day. (see below)

(4) Taaljangh
Taaljangh was the son of Jayadhwaj and the grandson of Kaartveerya Arjun (Sahastraarjun). Arjun had 10,000 sons, Parashuraam Jee (a Bhrgu Vanshee) killed his all sons except five. His eldest son Jayadhwaj had a son named Taaljangh and Taaljangh had 100 sons who all were also called Taaljangh Kshatriya. Arjun's five sons were against Bhrigu family - Parashuraam, because Parashuraam Jee killed their father Arjun. Taalajangh was also against the family of Bhrigu. Because of this anger he also had to suffer. King Sagar did not kill him but he left him and his other people deformed by shaving somebody's head or somebody's mustasch, or somebody's beard etc.
[The description of his ruling period is not available - any idea?]

(5) Aila or Il (Greed)
Chaanakya gives this reference of Il who was the son of Manu, that when Il was the king, he, in his attempt under the influence of greed he made exactions from Braahman;
[The description of his ruling period is not available - any idea?]

(6) Ajabindu (Greed)
He was the King of Sauveer kingdom. He was also destroyed in a similar attempt - because of his own greed he died untimely because of the anger of his people.
[This description is not available - any help?]

(7) Raavan (Desire for a Stranger's Wife)
The King of Tri-Lok Raavan who attempted to gain over Seetaa, incarnation of Lakshmee and the wife of God Vishnu Himself, got ruined completely along with his family, relatives and kingdom, under the influence of vanity to restore a stranger's unwilling wife.

(8) Duryodhan (Greed of Kingdom) 
In Mahaabhaarat, Duryodhan got destroyed with his all brothers and family members and many other kings (11 Akshauhhinee army + 7 Akshauhinee army on Paandav's side) because he did not want to give Paandav even 5 villages which were legally the part of the share of their kingdom.

(9) Dambodbhav
[His name is also not available anywhere, any help?]

(10) Arjun of Haihaya Dynasty (Greed of Cow)
Kaartveerya Arjun (or Sahstraarjun or Sahastrabaahu) was a great king of Haihaya lineage. He was the son of Kritveerya. Once he went to Maharshi Jamadagni's hermitage. Rishi welcomes him and his army and entertained with the help of his Kaamdhenu cow named Nandinee. In those days there was a famine in his kingdom, so he thought that if he had that cow, he could have fed his people well, so he asked him to give that cow to him, saying that "this cow should have been with a King, not with a Rishi." But Jamadagni Jee refused to give that cow to him. When Arjun tried to take her forcefully, the cow pushed all his army back. Later Arjun's sons killed Jamadagni Jee and took the cow to their palace, Seeing this Parashuraam Jee got very angry and  killed Arjun and his 10,000 sons leaving his only 5 sons alive.

(11) Vaataapi Raakshas (Anger on Rishi)
in his attempt under the influence of overjoy to attack Agastya, This story comes in Bhavishya Puraan, 4/38. When Vaataapi Raakshas attempted to kill  Agastya Muni under the influence of his over-joy but was killed himself along with his brother Ilval. Ilval and Vaataapi were two Raakshas brothers who used to eat Braahman. Ilval invited them for food, then he got changed in the form of ram. Vaataapi cooked him, fed him to the Braahman and the called Ilval to come out of the Braahman's stomach. As he came bursting out the stomach of the Braahman, the Braahman used to die. This trick he played with Agastya muni also, but he digested him and when Vaataapi came in fury, he killed him also by his one "Hunkaar".

(12) Vrishnis (Pride)
This story comes in Mahaabhaarat, Mausal Parv. Corporation of Vrishni got perished fighting among each other in their attempt against Krishn Dwaipaayan. Once some Rishi came to see Krishn in Dwaarakaa and stayed nearby. Some Yadu princes took Saamb in the guise of a pregnant woman and asked those Rishi to tell the gender of the child she was carrying - boy or a girl. Rishi knew that they were making a fool of them. so they said - "This son of Vaasudev will deliver an iron rod which will perish the whole Yaadav Vansh." And the same thing happened. They all got perished by the same iron rod, he delivered, fighting with each other.

This reference of Ved Vyaas Jee matches the Jaatak version as the sage attacked by the Vrishni, though Vyaas does not die here, but in Mahaabhaarat it is not because of Vyaas Jee that they killed each other, but they were perished because of Braahman - precisely because of Naarad Jee, Vishwaamitra and Kanv Rishi's curse.

Thus, Chaanakya further says - Who have not won these 6 enemies, they themselves die early, lose their kingdom, may end their lineage as well; while who win their enemies are benefited, though temporally, by a peaceful and prosperous life throughout. Later he cites the examples of  Ambareesh, Naabhaag Kings.

Some more of these, like the above mentioned people who suffered because of these six enemes, are given below.

(1) Pareeksht (Anger)
A detailed story of Pareekshit may be found in Bhaagvat Puraan, 1/4. Pareekshit was the son of Abhimanyu (son of Arjun). When Pareekshit took over the control of his kingdom, Kali Yug had come. He did not want Kali Yug in his kingdom so he asked him to go away from his kingdom, but he said - "I have to live here as Brahmaa Jee has ordered me to live here. I can help only in one way that I can live only in those places in which you will ask me to live, so tell me some places." Pareekshit told him four places - at the place of gambling (Juaa), where people drink liquor (bars), where men and women are together (Stree Sang), and Hinsaa (violence). Kali Yug was not satisfied with these places so he asked more places to live. Pareekshit gave him one other place to live - that was gold. This generousness took his life. Once he insulted Shameek Rishi and bagged a curse from his son, Shringee Rishi that he would die by  the bite of Takshak Naag on the 7th day from that day. And it happened like that.

(2) Dev Raaj Indra (Lust)
This story comes in Vaalmeeki Raamaayan, Baal Kaand. Indra, the King of Devtaa, violated the chastity of Ahalyaa, wife of Gautam Rishi, earned the curse of Gautam Rishi. Gautam Rishi cursed him that his testicles should fall on the ground (at another place this curse was that his body would be covered by 1,000 ugly marks of vagina for which he had to please Shiv Jee who changed those marks into 1,000 eyes, that is why he is call as Thousand-eyed), as well as his wife Ahalyaa to be covered with dust till Raam came to that place and touched by His foot.

(3) Keechak (Lust)
This story is from Mahaabhaarat, Viraat Parv. Mighty Keechak, King Viraat's brother-in-law and Sudeshnaa's brother, who tried to seduce Draupadee when Paandav were spending the incognito year (the 13th one) of their 13 years of exile in King Viraat's kingdom. He was brutally killed by Bheem and along with his other brothers who were also killed brutally by Bheem only.

Sushma Gupta

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Four Purushaarth

Our Hindu philosophy fixes four type of Purushaarth (efforts) for a human being. They are very logical steps in a human being's life and worth following them. Following them one can reach his goal of life - that is Moksh. These four Purushaarth should be the main objectives of life and be followed - earning money, fulfilling desires of life, to do Dharm to earn Punya (merit) and to follow all these to attain Moksh.

Who think that the Arth or fulfilling of desires or Dharm alone is the most important thing enough  to obtain in the life to attain Moksh, is not correct. All the four are necessary for it and that also in that order. Let us see how.

(1) Arth (Money or Wealth)
The first thing is to earn money, for what? to fulfill the desires. If these objectives are kept in this order, Arth, Kaam, Dharn and Moksh, a man should first earn money, not be cheating, not by unfair means, but by fair means and manage it by spending it to fulfill his own desires and; his family's needs and desires. Why? To sustain himself and to fulfill his responsibilities towards his family. Our scriptures say that any money earned by unfair means  and saved by not providing for one's own and his family's needs, and is if spent on Dharm actions, does not earn Dharm. That is why all money should be earned by fair mean; and after fulfilling one's own and his family's needs, should be used to earn Punya - by donating or doing some Dharm actions.

Hear "fulfillment of needs" words are to be noticed attentively. Why? Because this is this world's nature that nobody's needs are ever fulfilled, whether he lives for thousands of years. So these needs have to be minimum, just to maintain oneself. Why? Because this human body is very valuable. Why? Because only this body is the means to attain Moksh. This Yoni (human body) is the only Yoni is to do any Karm, all others are Bhog Yoni - means one cannot do any Karm in those Yoni. In other than human Yoni you do not have any opportunity to do anything, they are just to pass time, and that also you do not have the power of mind to know it that how much time you passed n that Yoni. And it is said in the scriptures that one is born in Manushya Yoni  after going through 840,000 Yoni; so never waste this life.

(2) Kaam (Desires or Pleasures)
This fairly earned money should be spent first on sustaining himself, so that one can maintain oneself to attain Moksh, and on the fulfillment of his responsibility of his family (Grihasth Aashram). This is necessary, because we have got this human body after passing through 840, 000 Yoni (species). And as said above that to attain Moksh is the ultimate Purushaarth of this human being Yoni, so one must sustain himself by earning money fairly and spending it minimum on himself and on hs family and and rest to use to perform Dharm actions to attain Moksh.

The main objective of fulfilling desires is to fulfilling only those desires which are legitimate, so that one's mind does not astray around after the unfulfilled desires. Because this wandering of mind will not allow them to concentrate on Dharm actions. Therefore before doing any Dharm actions one should satisfy himself with his desires, so that he s not the victim of greed.

(3) Dharm (Punya or Merits)
After earning the money by fair means and fulfilling one's own and his family's desires and needs, a man should aspire for Dharm through the rest of money. All Dharm actions need money to carry out the objectives - Yagya (sacrifices); Daan (alms and donations); building temples, wells, ponds etc etc. Money should not be earned only to satisfy one's pleasures, rather Arth, Kaam and Dharm all are the necessary means to attain Moksh. Only if one can save something from his fairly earned money after spending it on himself and his family, then only he should spend the rest of the money on others for the welfare of himself (to earn Dharm and Punya).Thus whatever little money a man can save, after sustaining himself and his family, he must spend it to earn Dharm.

(4) Moksh
And this earned Dharm, through fairly earned money after spending it on oneself and one's family needs, with satisfied mind, is the means to attain Moksh - the final aim of the human life.

Only those actions which help to practice the Arth, Kaam and Dharm together should be performed. Any of the action which satisfies any one, or even two of them at the expense of the remaining ones, should not be performed.

Sushma Gupta

Lucky Daitya and Human Beings

All people long for being with God, but it is not easy for everyone to be with God, but these Daitya and human beings are so lucky that they are always with God. Let us see who are those who are always with gods?

There was a Daitya named Gajmukhaasur. Once he did lots of Tap and asked Brahmaa Jee a boon that he should be killed by the being who has the form like him - elephant's head and body of a human being. When Ganesh Ji was born, he was the most appropriate person to kill him, so he killed him with his broken tusk only. But the corpse of Gajmukhaasur took a form of a mouse to bless him. Kind Ganesh Jee blessed him and he became Ganesh's ride mouse. Thus now he is always with Ganesh Jee.

Mahishaasur was also a great Daitya who was doing severe atrocities on people, so Devee decided to kill him. After he was killed by Devee, he got Saameepya of Devee Durgaa. Wherever Durgaa's picture is there, Mahishaasur's picture is also there with her Trishool on his chest.

Panchjan was a Raakshas who lived in the sea. When Krishn and Balaraam finished their education at Saandeepan Muni's Aashram, as the tradition of those times was, they asked their Guru as what should they pay him as Guru Dakshinaa. Saandeepan Jee knew who they were, so he said - "I don't need anything, I was fortunate to have you both as my disciples. That is enough for me." But when Krishn insisted on paying His Guru Dakshinaa, the Guru sent them to ask his wife if she needed something from Him.

Now Saandeepan Muni's only son was lost long time ago. Saandeepan Muni knew this that he was not lost, rather he died, but his wife was still in the impression that he was lost and one day he would come back. So when Krishn asked her what He should give her, she asked to bring her son back to her. Krishn and Balaraam went to Prabhaas Kshetra to that sea where Guru's son was lost. They asked Sea to return him to Him, but he said to them - "I have not taken him, maybe the Raakshas, named Panchajan who lives inside me in the form of a conch, has taken him. You yourself may go and find him." So Krishn went inside the sea, found Panchajan Raakshas, killed him, but when He looked inside his body, He could not find His Guru's son there. But he brought his body along with Him. It was called Paanchjanya conch and He kept it with Him always. He did not ask for any boon to be with Bhagavaan, but Krishn took his body which was in the form of a conch,  and kept it always in His hand .

Two Princes in Jaimini's Mahaabhaarat 
The above written were all Raakshas, but there are some human beings also who live with Bhagavaan. Jaimini's Mahaabhaarat mentions two kings. When they were killed, Shiv Jee  added their heads in his Mund Maalaa. How lucky? When Yudhishthr performed his Ashwamedh Yagya and released his Yagya horse, many kings and princes attempted to seize it, but nobody could stay against Arjun and all had to join him. These names have been taken from that travels.

The King of Champak Puree Hansdhwaj was a great devotee of Krishn, so when Yudhishthir's Ashwamedh Yagya horse came wandering in his country, he decided to seize him in the hope that if Arjun is with the horse, Krishn should also be with him, so he could bring Krishn in his kingdom, and so he broke the war with Arjun. And to complete his mission he ordered his all people to go to battlefield and defeat Arjun, and if anybody did not go, he would be punished by putting in boiling oil. By chance his own son Sudhanvaa gets late and he is not excused for his crime. His father asks him to jump in the boiling hot oil.

Sudhanvaa was also a great devotee of Krishn so he took Krishn's name and jumped in the boiling hot oil. The oil became cool liquid for him and he was not hurt at all. Later he fought with Arjun and many other warriors and in the last his head was severed, but his headless body continued to fight. Krishn takes his head and throws up in the sky. Shiv Jee captures his head and adds it to his Mund Maalaa.

The same king Hansdhwaj had another son named Surath also comes to fight, but he is also beheaded. Krishn asks Garud to deposit his head in Gangaa River, but before the head falls in Gangaa, Shiv's ride Nandee captures it and adds it to Shiv's Mund Maal.

How lucky are both the sons of Hansdhwaj that they got the place in Shiv's Mund Maalaa?

Sushma Gupta

Tuesday, December 11, 2012

Names of Raakshas-1

Everybody has a name, but some names are according to the people's peoples' physical properties. This is very common in Asur (Daitya or Raakshas). Here are some of those Asur who had such names --

Andhakaasur (Blind) -
This demon was known as Andhakaaur because he was born blind. Once Paarvatee Jee closed Shiv's eyes from his back in a playful mood. Since Shiv's eyes were closed, the whole universe plunged into darkness. Seeing this Paarvatee Jee started sweating and as the drops of her sweat fell on the ground, a black, hairy and blind demon was born. Since he was born from sweat he was born blind. In those days Hiranyaaksh and Hiranyakashyap were very powerful demons. Hiranyakashyap had the children while Hiranyaaaksh had none, so Shiv Jee gave that child to him. He brought him up but because of his being blind he became frustrated. So he did Tapasyaa and Brahmaa Jee granted him several boons - he gave him sight, victory over Indra, but in the end he asked for immortality. Brahmaa jee could not give him this boon so he asked him to ask for another boon. Andhakaasur asked - "Whenever I aspire for such a woman who has never been aspired for, I should die." Brahmaa Jee said - "So be it." and went away.

Once the Generals of Andhak saw Paarvatee Jee  on Mandar Mountain and thought that she would be a good woman for their master, so they reported Andhak about her. he came to see Paarvatee and fought with Shiv's Gan for about 1,000 years. Shukraaachaarya was another obstacle in killing demons, so Shiv Jee got abducted him. Now 5,000 years passed. Shiv Jee then used his trident to kill Andhak and kept his body high on it in the sky for 1,000 years. At that time he came to know about his birth, he was surprised to know that Shiv Jee did not punish him although he had aspired for his own mother. he fell on his parents' feet and Shiv kindly gave him the status of his Gan - Bhringee.

Bakaasur (Crane) - 
There are two Bakaasur. One was killed by Krishn and he was in the form of a Bak (Bagulaa or crane).
The second Bakaasur is mentioned in Mahaabhaarat, Aadi Parv. When Paandav were living in the forest after their Baaranaavat incident, they were passing their days in Ekchakraa Nagaree. Its people were very afflicted by Bakaasur named Raakshas as he used to eat many people from the village. Bheem killed him. He was in the form of a Bak (Bagulaa or crane)

Gajaasur (Elephant) -
He had this name, Gajaasur, as he was in the form of elephant. Gaj means elephant. Once he performed a severe penance to please Shiv Jee. Pleased Shiv Jee appeared before him and asked him to ask for the boon. He asked that Shiv should live in his stomach. In spite of Shiv's unwillingness of granting such a boon he had to fulfill his promise. When Paarvatee did not see Shiv Jee for some time, she asked Vishnu to help her. Vishnu searched Shiv Jee, and got him back from the stomach of the Asur. Gajaasur asked Shiv Jee his last boon that he should be remembered by all after his death. Shiv Jee granted his wish and later fixed his head on the severed body of  his son Ganesh. That is how he is worshiped first among all Devtaa and remembered by all.

Gajmukhaasur (Whose head is of elephant) -
There was an Asur whose name came to be Gajmukhaasur because his head was of elephant and his body was of a human being. Once he pleased Brahmaa Jee with his hard penance and asked for the boon of immortality. Brahmaa Jee told him that immortality was not possible for anybody so he should choose for some other boon. After a while he said - "Then grant me the boon that I should be killed by such a man who is of my form." "Be it so." Saying this Brahmaa Jee disappeared. Ganesh Jee had to born to kill him. Gajmukhaasur took the form of a mouse and approached Ganesh Jee. Kind Ganesh Jee employed him as his ride.

Mahishaasur (He-buffalo) -
This Asur was in the form of Mahish (He-buffalo) that is why he was named as Mahishaasur and was killed by Devee. His story comes in Devee Mahaatmya (or Chandee Paath, or Durgaa Sapt Shatee) which is a part of Maarkandeya Puraan.

Raktbeej (Blood) -
The secret of his name, (Raktbeej (whose Beej is in his blood, means he could have produced many Raktbeej Raakshas from his blood only) was hidden in his blood. He had obtained a boon from Shiv Jee that if even one drop touches the ground, it should produce another Raktbeej Raakshas. For the same reason he was not only difficult to kill, but rather impossible to kill him. To kill him, Devee also had

Shankhaasur (Conch) -
His story comes in Padm Puraan. 5/12. There was an Asur named Shankh. He was the son of Samudra (sea) and he was in the form of a Shankh (conch). Once he defeated all Devtaa and sent them out of Amaraavatee. He also thought that these Devtaa are powerful because of Ved, so if Ved will not be there, they will become weak, so he went and brought Ved. Seeing this Brahmaa Jee went to Vishnu for His help. Vishnu killed Shankhaasur on Kaarttik Shukla Ekaadashee, went to Badaree Forest and asked the Rishi to bring the Ved back from the sea. Many Rishi went to sea and brought the Ved back. Brahmaa Jee got very happy to see Ved back.

These are some of the Asur who had their names according to their physical characteristics. Next time I will write about the Raakshas whose names were also like that and were dealt with Ganesh Jee. For the same reason, he is called Asht Vinaayak because for the sake of them he had to assume 8 forms.

Sushma Gupta

Sunday, December 2, 2012

Krishn's Weapons

You might have seen Vishnu's picture with four things carrying in His hands - lotus flower, Chakra or discus,  Gadaa or mace, and Shankh or conch. His this Moorti (figure) is for blessings, as well as for protection. Lotus  is to bless the people as it shows that He is very soft-hearted,   Shankh is to frighten the enemies thus soothes the Bhakt, and Gadaa and Chakra are to protect His Bhakt. He has two weapons more which He takes up occasionally according to the situation - they are a sword and a bow. All have their own names. Today I will write about these weapons as what are their names, where did he get them and their some uses He made.

Shankh (Conch)
Krishn's conch's name is Paanchjanya. He got this conch after killing a Raakashas named Panchjan who lived in the sea in the form of a conch. He went to get educated to Saandeepan Muni. When He and Balaraam had finished their education, according to those times, He asked His Guru as what Guru Dakshinaa He should pay. Guru Jee knew who Krishn was so he did not ask anything from Him. He just said - "I am blessed to receive you as my disciple, that is all, I do not need anything." But Krishn insisted that His education was not complete unless He had paid His Guru Dakshinaa. So Guru Jee directed Him to his wife saying that He could ask His Guru Maataa if she needed anything. So Krishn and Balaraam went to to their Guru Maataa.

Now Guru Jee had a son who died long time ago. Guru Jee knew this but Guru Maataa was not yest convinced. She thought that he was lost in a fair, while in reality he had died in the sea after drowning. So when Krishn asked His Guru Maataa if there is anything she needed anything for Guru Dakshinaa, she asked Him to search for her son. Krishn went to the sea and asked him to tell about His Guru's son. Sea said - "I have not taken your Guru's son, but there is a Raakshas named Panchjan  living in me in the conch form, you can check there if he has taken him. So Krishn went there and killed Panchjan, but He could not find Guru's son there. When He had killed that Raakshas He brought his body with Him. The same Raakshas' body,  in the form of conch, is now Krishn's conch Paanchjanya. That is how Krishn got His Paanchjanya Shankh. When He used to blow His conch the enemies used to get frightened.

Raam's brother Shatrughn was the incarnation of His Shankh.

Chakra (Discus)
Krishn's Chakra's name is Sudarshan. It has 1,000 Arey (spikes) inside and its speed is very fast. Nobody can escape from His Discus. After doing the assigned work to it,  it comes back automatically to Vishnu. How Vishnu got His Chakra, is an interesting story. When Soorya Dev got married to the daughter of Vishwakarmaa, named Sanjanaa. Sanjanaa lived with him for some time, but she could not live with him for long, so Vishwakarmaa put Soorya Dev on his lathe and cut 1/8th part of his powers. The fragments that fell on the Earth because of this operation were used by him to make Sudarshan Chakra for Vishnu and some other weapons for other Devtaa. According to Mahaabhaarat, when  Agni Dev asked Arjun to satisfy him with food, Arjun said - "I don't have proper means to fulfill your wish. If you can arrange me the means, I can give you food." So Agni Dev went to Varun Dev and brought some things from him - chariot, inexhaustible quiver, Gaandeev bow for Arjun and a Disc and a Gadaa (mace) for Krishn. Then only Arjun and Krishn could burn Khaandav Forest and satisfy Agni Dev.

(1) First Krishn used His Chakra to kill Shishupaal, and and then to kill fake Krishn. Krishn Himself told a story to Arjun about His Discus. He said - "Once Jayadrath came to Dwaarakaa and expressed his desire that he wanted to be very mighty like me. He knew that my Discus does not go empty and that is what he wanted from me, so he asked me my Discus. First I politely ignored his request, but when he did not listen to me, then I gave it to him and asked him to hold it, but it was so heavy that he could not hold it, so he abandoned the idea to have it and said - "Krishn, It looks good in your hands only." and went away.

(2) Vishnu has used His chakra to cut the neck of Raahu Daitya also at the time of Saagar Manthan. This gave birth to Daitya - Raahu (the head) and the Ketu (the tail),

Raam's brother Bharat was the incarnation of this Sudarshan Chakra.
It is believed that Kaartveerya Arjun (Sahastrabaahu) was the Avataar (incarnation) of Vishnu's Sudarshan Chakra. As the Chakra had 1,000 spikes, he also had 1,000 arms.

Gadaa (Mace)
His mace's name is Kaumodakee. When Arjun pleased Agni Dev by burning Khaandav Forest, he gave Krishn and Arjun several things. One of them was this Kaumodakee Gadaa which he gave to Krishn. Krishn used His Gadaa to fight wiht Kaalayavan Raakshas after he had killed most of his army by His Shaarng bow.

Dhanush (Bow)
Krishn has a bow also, Its name is Shaarng. He killed most of Kaalayavan's army with His this bow. And then He fought with him with His Gadaa Kaumodakee.

Talavaar (Sword)
Krish has a sword also. Its name is Nandakee.

Krishn's Chariot
Krishn's chariot is very special. Its name is Jaitra (Vishnu Puraan, 5/14). He has another chariot too which is named as Sugreev Pushpak. His chariots are driven by His special charioteer named Daaruk. His chariot is drawn by four horses - Sugreev, Meghpushp, Shaivya and Balaahak. These horses run with the speed of wind. His chariot was equipped with all kinds of His weapons which He might need at any time.

Apparels and Other Identification Marks of Vishnu
His apparels include
--a peacock feather worn as His crown (Mor Pankh)
--a flute (Baansuree)
--earrings of a fish shape (Makaraakrit Kundal)
--yellow cloth worn on the upper part of  His body (Peetaambar)
--a Vaijantee Maalaa or Van Maalaa on His chest
-- a cow on which Krishn leans on (Gaaya)

These are Krishn's weapons, chariots, driver, apparels etc etc.

Sushma Gupta