Chaanakya on 6 Enemies
Chaanakya also says that Arth is the most important thing in the life. Why? Because, the other two Purushaarth (sustaining the life and performing Dharm actions) are dependent on Arth only. Without money, neither one cannot sustain himself and his family, nor he can perform any Dharm action (Punya). And without doing these both, one cannot get Moksh. To save money to perform Dharm actions, one must save some money after sustaining himself. And to save the money, one needs to control his five senses (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin whose function is sight, sound, smell, taste and touch respectively) to become Jitendriya (one who has won his senses) to save oneself from the 6 most important, dangerous and common enemies of a human being. If he could not become Jitendriya, he will be spending his whole money to satisfy his desires only, so much so that he will have to earn money by unfair means.
These 6 enemies always thwart a human being when he is on right path.They are Kaam (desire and lust), Krodh (anger), Lobh (greed or avarice), Moh (illusion), Mad (pride) and Maatsarys (envy) - Chaanakya lists them like this - . lust, anger, greed, vanity, haughtiness, and overjoy. Among these 6 enemies, the first 3 enemies are more powerful than the rest of the 3. It is the Kaam (lust) which is the most powerful enemy. If somehow we can control our desires we can do much better toward achieving our goal. But the problem is that our desires are always on increase, and as many desires we have, the difficulties increase to achieve our goal.
Geetaa also says the same thing - Desires is the root cause of everything - to commit sin, to bring obstacles to achieve our goal, in being peaceful etc etc. When our desire is not fulled, we become angry, An angry mind cannot think properly. As he wants to fulfill his desire by any means, and when he does not find any means (money or anything) he runs after acquiring that means and adopts illegal or sinful means to acquire it and tries to fulfill it by that sinful means. Since there is no end of desires, he continues to run after fulfilling them. As soon as his one desire is fulfilled, another one arises and thus the cycle goes on. If all these senses are kept under control one can attain the final Purushaarth - Moksh easily.
Chaanakya (Kautilya) in his Arth Shaastra, in its chapter 6 also gives some examples from our Puraan, as who became the victim of these enemies and what happened to them. They lost everything including their lives - "...King Dandakya of the Bhoja Dynasty making a lascivious attempt on a Braahman maiden perished along with his kingdom and relations. So also Karaal, the Videha. Likewise Janamejaya under the influence of anger against Braahmans as well as Taaljangh against the family of Bhrigus. Ravana unwilling under the influence of vanity to restore a stranger's wife; as well as Duryodhan to part with his portion of his kingdom suffered the same consequences. Thus these and other several kings falling the prey to the aggregate of the six enemies, Ambarisha of Jaamdagnya, famous for his restraint of the organ sense, as well as Naabhaag long enjoyed the Earth."
[Taken from Arthshastra - the Science of Polity, by BK Chaturvedi, page 15]
He also says that if a man can protect himself from these 6 enemies, only he is wise. In other words it is called self-discipline. We will read the stories of those people here which have been referred by Chaanakya
(1) King Dand (Lust)
Daandakya name is not available anywhere, but with this reference Dand name is available. This story comes in Vaalmeeki Raamaayan, Uttar Kaand. The King Dand, the grandson of Manu (Manu's son was Ikshwaaku, and Ikshwaaku's son was Dand) once carried off the daughter of Daitya Guru Shukraachaarya (Bhaargav), named Arajaa, forcefully from a forest with evil intent was eventually ruined and lost his kingdom. He was cursed by Shukraachaarya Jee that within 7 days he would lose his kingdom, he people will be killed and his kingdom will be covered with dust. According to that curse, he was buried with his kingdom under a shower of dust. This place was later named as Dandak Van under his name. This was the place where Raam lived in His exile period.
(2) Karaala, the Vaideh (Lust)
I could not find this name and his story.
(3) Janamejaya (Anger)
His story comes in Mahaabhaarat but nowhere it is written there that he got angry at a Braahman.
[Any idea where this story can be found?]
His father Pareekshit's story is also similar to his story (see below). He also got angry at a Braahman (Shameek Rishi) and bagged the curse of his son Shringee Rishi to be bitten by Takshak Naag on the 7th day from that day. (see below)
Taaljangh was the son of Jayadhwaj and the grandson of Kaartveerya Arjun (Sahastraarjun). Arjun had 10,000 sons, Parashuraam Jee (a Bhrgu Vanshee) killed his all sons except five. His eldest son Jayadhwaj had a son named Taaljangh and Taaljangh had 100 sons who all were also called Taaljangh Kshatriya. Arjun's five sons were against Bhrigu family - Parashuraam, because Parashuraam Jee killed their father Arjun. Taalajangh was also against the family of Bhrigu. Because of this anger he also had to suffer. King Sagar did not kill him but he left him and his other people deformed by shaving somebody's head or somebody's mustasch, or somebody's beard etc.
[The description of his ruling period is not available - any idea?]
(5) Aila or Il (Greed)
Chaanakya gives this reference of Il who was the son of Manu, that when Il was the king, he, in his attempt under the influence of greed he made exactions from Braahman;
[The description of his ruling period is not available - any idea?]
(6) Ajabindu (Greed)
He was the King of Sauveer kingdom. He was also destroyed in a similar attempt - because of his own greed he died untimely because of the anger of his people.
[This description is not available - any help?]
(7) Raavan (Desire for a Stranger's Wife)
The King of Tri-Lok Raavan who attempted to gain over Seetaa, incarnation of Lakshmee and the wife of God Vishnu Himself, got ruined completely along with his family, relatives and kingdom, under the influence of vanity to restore a stranger's unwilling wife.
(8) Duryodhan (Greed of Kingdom)
In Mahaabhaarat, Duryodhan got destroyed with his all brothers and family members and many other kings (11 Akshauhhinee army + 7 Akshauhinee army on Paandav's side) because he did not want to give Paandav even 5 villages which were legally the part of the share of their kingdom.
[His name is also not available anywhere, any help?]
(10) Arjun of Haihaya Dynasty (Greed of Cow)
Kaartveerya Arjun (or Sahstraarjun or Sahastrabaahu) was a great king of Haihaya lineage. He was the son of Kritveerya. Once he went to Maharshi Jamadagni's hermitage. Rishi welcomes him and his army and entertained with the help of his Kaamdhenu cow named Nandinee. In those days there was a famine in his kingdom, so he thought that if he had that cow, he could have fed his people well, so he asked him to give that cow to him, saying that "this cow should have been with a King, not with a Rishi." But Jamadagni Jee refused to give that cow to him. When Arjun tried to take her forcefully, the cow pushed all his army back. Later Arjun's sons killed Jamadagni Jee and took the cow to their palace, Seeing this Parashuraam Jee got very angry and killed Arjun and his 10,000 sons leaving his only 5 sons alive.
(11) Vaataapi Raakshas (Anger on Rishi)
in his attempt under the influence of overjoy to attack Agastya, This story comes in Bhavishya Puraan, 4/38. When Vaataapi Raakshas attempted to kill Agastya Muni under the influence of his over-joy but was killed himself along with his brother Ilval. Ilval and Vaataapi were two Raakshas brothers who used to eat Braahman. Ilval invited them for food, then he got changed in the form of ram. Vaataapi cooked him, fed him to the Braahman and the called Ilval to come out of the Braahman's stomach. As he came bursting out the stomach of the Braahman, the Braahman used to die. This trick he played with Agastya muni also, but he digested him and when Vaataapi came in fury, he killed him also by his one "Hunkaar".
This story comes in Mahaabhaarat, Mausal Parv. Corporation of Vrishni got perished fighting among each other in their attempt against Krishn Dwaipaayan. Once some Rishi came to see Krishn in Dwaarakaa and stayed nearby. Some Yadu princes took Saamb in the guise of a pregnant woman and asked those Rishi to tell the gender of the child she was carrying - boy or a girl. Rishi knew that they were making a fool of them. so they said - "This son of Vaasudev will deliver an iron rod which will perish the whole Yaadav Vansh." And the same thing happened. They all got perished by the same iron rod, he delivered, fighting with each other.
This reference of Ved Vyaas Jee matches the Jaatak version as the sage attacked by the Vrishni, though Vyaas does not die here, but in Mahaabhaarat it is not because of Vyaas Jee that they killed each other, but they were perished because of Braahman - precisely because of Naarad Jee, Vishwaamitra and Kanv Rishi's curse.
Thus, Chaanakya further says - Who have not won these 6 enemies, they themselves die early, lose their kingdom, may end their lineage as well; while who win their enemies are benefited, though temporally, by a peaceful and prosperous life throughout. Later he cites the examples of Ambareesh, Naabhaag Kings.
Some more of these, like the above mentioned people who suffered because of these six enemes, are given below.
(1) Pareeksht (Anger)
A detailed story of Pareekshit may be found in Bhaagvat Puraan, 1/4. Pareekshit was the son of Abhimanyu (son of Arjun). When Pareekshit took over the control of his kingdom, Kali Yug had come. He did not want Kali Yug in his kingdom so he asked him to go away from his kingdom, but he said - "I have to live here as Brahmaa Jee has ordered me to live here. I can help only in one way that I can live only in those places in which you will ask me to live, so tell me some places." Pareekshit told him four places - at the place of gambling (Juaa), where people drink liquor (bars), where men and women are together (Stree Sang), and Hinsaa (violence). Kali Yug was not satisfied with these places so he asked more places to live. Pareekshit gave him one other place to live - that was gold. This generousness took his life. Once he insulted Shameek Rishi and bagged a curse from his son, Shringee Rishi that he would die by the bite of Takshak Naag on the 7th day from that day. And it happened like that.
(2) Dev Raaj Indra (Lust)
This story comes in Vaalmeeki Raamaayan, Baal Kaand. Indra, the King of Devtaa, violated the chastity of Ahalyaa, wife of Gautam Rishi, earned the curse of Gautam Rishi. Gautam Rishi cursed him that his testicles should fall on the ground (at another place this curse was that his body would be covered by 1,000 ugly marks of vagina for which he had to please Shiv Jee who changed those marks into 1,000 eyes, that is why he is call as Thousand-eyed), as well as his wife Ahalyaa to be covered with dust till Raam came to that place and touched by His foot.
(3) Keechak (Lust)
This story is from Mahaabhaarat, Viraat Parv. Mighty Keechak, King Viraat's brother-in-law and Sudeshnaa's brother, who tried to seduce Draupadee when Paandav were spending the incognito year (the 13th one) of their 13 years of exile in King Viraat's kingdom. He was brutally killed by Bheem and along with his other brothers who were also killed brutally by Bheem only.