Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Foreign Folktales in Hindi-3

Free Folktale Books on Scribd
A few days ago I published a blog about my new book  -  Odd Marriages: Folktales from Africa

Hope you might have read it and like it. Two day ago I have published another book, on Scribd "Stories of Justice". This is also a very interesting book. You will admire people who did justice in it, and you will laugh at people who did justice in it. This is also for you to read free.

Doing justice is not an easy job. It is a task which has to be completed with intelligence and faithfulness. Sometimes it needs some sacrifice also.

This book carries stories of justice from very ancient time to not so modern time, and
from all kinds of people and animals, as how do they do justice with their subjects.
These folktales and stories have been selected from all over the world - Israel, Ethiopia, Persia, India etc etc.

It is really interesting to read these folktales and stories and tell them to others.
You will indeed enjoy them.
Happy reading...

Sushma Gupta

Modern Day Problems-3

Day before yesterday I wrote about the importance of the power.
Yesterday I wrote about the problems and stresses related to it.
Today I am writing how our parents or ancestors were happy and contented without power.

In my childhood -
There was no power in the house. We used mustard oil lamps or kerosene oil lanterns in our houses to go around, in the kitchen and sometimes for reading too. We normally finished our studies in the daytime only. We got our water from a hand pump or from a well, as there was no tap water in the city in those days. Even well was not there in every house. However, we had a well in our house, so many people come to our well to fetch water. It was fun to watch people coming to our house with their buckets to fetch water. Rope was always there at our well so they did not need to bring their rope. For some people filling water was a project.

We use firewood and coal for cooking - so no worry of gas, microwave, toaster, oven etc etc. Food was cooked twice a day - lunch and dinner. If  somebody had to eat at any other time of the day, he ate only cooked kept food - no grudges. No fresh breakfast - only Paraathaa cooked the previous night with vegetable (if it was there at all) otherwise with pickles. My mother used to make many kinds of pickles. One full cupboard - of 4 planks, on each of which at least 4 big jars could be kept, was always full - with 16 jars of various kinds of pickles.

Otherwise we always ate fresh, no fridge food, no freezer food. If sometime something remained, we used to give to poor people. We were happy that our food was utilized and they were happy that they got the food. What a win-win situation.

Getting up in the morning was no problem. My mother and grandmother used to get up very early, so they used to wake us up. There was only one alarm clock, of about 6" diameter, in our house and the other one on my father's wrist. There was no need for us to see TIME. Our parents kept the track of the time. We used that alarm clock to see time only to go to school, so that we are not late, that is all.

There was no radio, let alone TV or anything else. Only rich and educated people used to subscribe for newspaper. Why? Literacy rate was very low and people did not value the newspaper as much. Only countable magazines were there to read. Most things were spoken and heard.

Whole day either school, or play, or some studies or any other activity if we ever had any. When it was about to be dark, we sat on our open air roof and talk about many things - of house, of outside, of city, of country, about history and geography. My father used to ask us many types of puzzles and questions. We gained a lots of knowledge out of them.

Then at about 8.00 pm we used to have our dinner, sometimes my mother made it an hour before, sometimes she made it instantly. After taking dinner we used to lay down our beds and our father used to tell us many stories - of Raam, of Mahaabhaarat, historical, educational. And then we slept. At that time we heard many stories. I have written down many of them as "My Childhood Stories".

What about in summer days? As we did not have any electricity we did not have any electric fan. We used hand fans to cool down ourselves. Everybody had hand fans on his bed. There used to be many fans lying everywhere in the house. As the summer started the hand fan sellers used to come to sell them and people used to buy them in  tens for the whole summer, They were made of palm leaves. Many fans were made very beautiful - by using colored cloths, beads, golden laces etc; and all this was done in our houses too. My grandmother and mother used to beautify these hand fans. It was an art.

My school days - 
My school days started when I was 8. Till then we had power and tap water in our house. It was a great relief then. The whole house used to seem lighted and for water we did not have to draw water from hand pump - just turn the head of the faucet and Lo there was water flowing down heavily. It used to come 24 hours. Since power was there so we had a radio also in our house, although my father did not allow me to touch it. It was used only to .listen to news only. There were not many programs used to air in those days.

This electricity was not like today also. Our room was 12 x 30 feet, and we used only 40 watt bulb in that big room  and we never thought that the light was dim, rather we were happy that we could study in the night. But today even if we have 100 watt bulb in a small room, we complain of low light.

I used to spend my summer vacation (2 and 1/2 months) with my maternal uncles' place. Our house was a businessman's house, so there were no modern way of living - from the view point of that time. My maternal Uncles (Maamaa) were in government service, so they lived in the modern way. We (my younger sister and myself) learned many things of modern life by living there,

In short - No Power, No Problems, No Distress.

Modern Day Problems-1
Modern Day Problems-2

Sushma Gupta 

Monday, September 29, 2014

Modern Day Problems-2

Yesterday I wrote about the importance of POWER in our everyday life of today. Its existence in our life today shows that we cannot live without it. Just think if we do not have it even for some time what will happen to our life --

--We might not get up in the morning on time without the alarm clock. We are late for all our work.
--No hot water, no powered toothbrush, no electric shaving -- oh what a start of the day? Without these things our mood is off and we cannot do well the whole day.
--Tea or coffee on stove? Never. It will be so late if the master had to prepare on stove, so he had to leave for his office without taking it. Mood off.
--Breakfast in a shop, or restaurant. More delay for work.
--Without radio and TV there is no news and entertainment - what a dry start of the day...
--The family has the habit of eating yogurt at lunch time. When there is no power, no yogurt, what a lunch without yogurt? The whole day is spoiled.
--No TV, - no entertainment, all interesting serials are gone,
--No computer - no e-mail, no home business, no homework for children, Such a useless day.
--And the whole day there was no AC/fan (or heating), so either suffer in heat, or shiver in cold.
-- No security system in the night - how to sleep in the night unsecured?
--Next day again late waking up, late going to work and so on...

The whole day - what a stressful useless day? It was never never never like this before.
So the Power give us the power to be happy these days.
But what if the Power is not there, then what? Only distress.

But what do you think? Was it all the time like this? We did not have all these things, say 70 years ago. Then? Were we not happy? Did we have to worry about anything like today?

No. There was nothing to worry about, so what would we worry about? And when there was no worry, there was no distress. Thus the life was distress free. It was a simple life.

We will see it tomorrow that how we were distress free many years ago when the power was not there.

Modern Day Problems-1
Modern Day Problems-3

Sushma Gupta

Sunday, September 28, 2014

Modern Day Problems-1

It is difficult to list today's problems and stress related to them. The problems start since morning and perhaps do not end even after sleeping. Many times we seek their solutions in our dreams also.

70 years before our parents did not have so many problems and stresses. 70 years means, I am talking about 1940s. I think more than 90% problems have arisen from POWER which may be interpreted in any way - status or position, or electricity, both are curses for life, of course unless they are used it intelligently (while it is difficult to use them). If somebody gets power (strength) he becomes arrogant, proud and tries to rule everybody. At the same time if somebody gets power (electricity) he also becomes arrogant, proud and tries to show off himself to everybody.

In those days most common people did not have power, neither status nor electricity. Many people did not have status because of British Raaj, and many people did not have electricity because it was not very common in those days.

With the advent of electricity people have largely depended on it. Not only since morning till evening, but also 24 X 7 we need it now. The whole day and night our heating is on in Winter and AC and fan in Summer. Our refrigerator is also always on. Leave that we often need the electricity to do anything in the night.

Let us count the other uses of power - our day starts with getting up with the help of electric alarm clock, hot water in the bathroom, powered toothbrush, electric shaver etc. Come to the breakfast table - we need to grind Chutney, or sometimes spices, making tea in an electric kettle, toaster to make toasts, and cold water to drink. After the breakfast we need it to make yogurt in an electric pot, to vacuum clean the house, to run the washing machine to wash clothes. And Yeah, I forgot, during this period our radio is always on for the housewife and TV for other family members. News and entertainment are necessary for our modern day life.

Now a days a variety of food items are available for all kinds of tastes. In one lunch time, sometimes 3-4 types of food have to be cooked - master of the house needs to eat say Idli and Saambhar; old parents need liquid Daal and Chapati with it, children need to eat pasta. Then why the housewife should sacrifice her desires for the family? She wants to eat Khichdi today. In  this menu there is a 100% possibility that at least one or two people will have their lunch cold. Reheating? no problem. Microwave is there. Reheat the food as many times as you like and eat it.

After the lunch, the house wife gets sometime to watch TV or do some computer work - for this not only electricity is required internet connection is also required. Children need to do their home work on computer. Now a days there is no life without computer. Whether you have your food or not, but you must use computer.

In the evening again a similar routine resumes. Children take bath, house wife makes tea or coffee (in percolator), Housewife quickly prepares the dinner and then the most evening is spent in front of the TV or computer.

At night again the fan is on, house security system is on, AC or heating is on, then only one can sleep peacefully in a house.

Now in this routine where is the time for power to rest? or at what time you can live without power?
So POWER is the breath of our life - of course in present times.

Tomorrow I will write why our parents or ancestors did not face such problems.

Modern Day problems-2
Modern Day Problems-3

Sushma Gupta 

Saturday, September 27, 2014

Foreign Folktales in Hindi-2

This blog is being written after quite some time. I was very busy in preparing my books for Foreign Folktales in Hindi Project... Today I became a bit free, so I am with you. Sorry for this gap and I am happy to be with you again...

First Book on  Foreign Folktales in Hindi
I have been writing in my past blogs that I have taken up a project to write foreign folktales in Hindi language so that they can be available to our Hindi knowing people - old or children, men or women, rich or poor.

I have indicated in my past blogs that my project is progressing very well and more than 600 folktales from various countries have been adapted into Hindi language. More than half of them are from African countries - Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, Zanzibar etc.

Foreign Folktales in Hindi Braille
Till now all of these folktales were with me only. Actually most of them are still with me...

Only one book, of 11 folktales from Nigeria, was published in December 2013 in Hindi Braille language under Touch Read project and was sent to 120 schools for the visually handicapped all over India. Two more books are ready to be published in Hindi Braille very soon, within a month or so. They will also be available to these children in these school.

These books are free to all people who can read Hindi Braille. Write to procure them to
Davendra Gupta - at

Foreign Folktales in Hindi for General Readers
I am pleased to announce that I have published my first book "Odd Marriages: Folktales from Africa" today on Scribd. You may enjoy reading it for free  
Hope you will like it.
If you like it please do nor forget to give me a feedback, thanks.

Past blogs on Folktales --

Sushma Gupta 

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Foreign Folktales in Hindi

Translation of More Than 600 Folktales Available in Hindi

A few months ago I wrote three blogs about the folktales which were translated from English language in Hindi to facilitate our Hindi speaking children with foreign folktales. These folktales may not be accessible to them because of many reasons -
(1) maybe because they are in English language,
(2) maybe the sources, such as books and other sources (theses, magazines etc) are not only unavailable to them bit they are not available even in India itself,
(3) Or maybe those folktales are not even available in English as many of them have not been translated in English and still exist in their local language.

Their number has now reached more than 600 - one of the greatest personal collection in the world - and it is still increasing.
These folktales are not only useful for children, but also for those parents who want to tell their little children lots of stories, and for those researchers who are interested in conducting research on them.

The list of these 600 folktales have been given on my website -
Go to the site  and click either on
"600 folktales titles",  OR
"List of Folktales"

The list of all these 600 folktales is given Hindi language, classified first by the continent and then by its country. Number of pages of each tale is also given there.
To know more about them write to

Folktales in Hindi Braille Language
As it is clear from those blogs some of these folktales (160 folktales) are available in Hindi Braille language to our visually handicapped children and adults reading Hindi. One book "Folktales of Nigeria, Part 1" is already out of the press and has been distributed free to about 120 schools for visually handicapped children in India.

Next two more books are in the process of printing -
(1) Folktales of Nigeria, Part 2, and
(3) Folktales from Africa, Part 1
They will be out in the month of August.

One more book, which is in English, is also under publication in Braille, that is
"Manu's Adventures" - this book is written by Dr Sapna Gupta and contains three most wonderful and interesting stories for children about Manu - its hero.

All these books will also be sent to the schools of visually handicapped people as soon they are out.
Besides distributed freely, all these books will be freely available to any visually handicapped person, child or adult, on request anywhere in the world.

You may please write to   to procure them.

Sushma Gupta

Mantra Power

Do Mantra have Power?
Mantra is one word or is a group of words, such as "Hreem" or "Om Namo Bhgavatey Vaasudevaaya". They are supposed to have extraordinary immense power in their sounds which when pronounced repeatedly (Jap or Jaap) create great effects. It has a silent energy which has transformation power on the person who utters it. By Mantra a Devtaa is invoked. Chanting Mantra is like to awake a person from deep sleep.

Chanting Mantra helps to get some work done or to attain Siddhi. Some people have strong belief in chanting Mantra to get their work done, while many consider it a hoax. What do you believe? Do Mantra have power? Perhaps we may not know about their failure, but at least we can know about their successes --

(1) Whoever has known Shankaraachaarya Jee, must be knowing that by reciting Kanakdhaaraa Stotra he rained golden Aamalaa (golden gooseberry) on an old woman's hut.
--He composed Subramanyam Bhujangam at Tiruchendur and relieving himself of the effects of Black Magic.
--He also composed Narasinha Stotram and escaping from the Kaapaalik.

(2) Vidyaaranya Teerth was instrumental in the formation of Vijayanagar Kingdom and how did he get money for that. He chanted Kanakdhaaraa Stotra and got the money.

(3) Madhwaachaarya Jee, when challenged Ved and their efficacy by Buddhists took a dead plant and chanted Ved and showed it and showed it coming to life.

(4) Brahmanya Teerth revived from death one Srinivaasaachaarya and got promise from him to donate the child born subsequently. That child was famous Vyaas Teerth.

(5) Raaghavendra Teerth revived a village chief Desai's dead child.

(6) Ragottam Teerth gave Mantra Akshdai to an uneducated Math cook known as Rotti Venkanaachaarya. On receiving it Venkannaachaarya became a very great scholar and wrote Bhaashya subsequently.

(7) There was one Dwait who was the disciple of Ragottam Teerth. He always used to chant what Dwait people chant - "Agrato Narasinh cha Prishtatho Gopee Nandah Pasvaryo Asto Sasharo Raam Lakshman". And on the way he was attached by a group of thieves but they ran away because they found Raam and Lakshman protecting him.

(8) Muthuswamy Deekshtar composed Amrit Karshinee in Amrit Varshinee Raag and it rained.

(9) Tyaagraajaa composed Triteeyaagaradh at Tirupati and the screen moved and he was able to have Venkatraman Swamy's Darshan.

(10) These two examples I am citing from a bit old times -
---Poet Mayoor Bhatt wrote Soorya Shatak to cure himself from Leprosy. When he recited its 6th stanza,  surprisingly Sun god appeared before him and he asked him to cure him from leprosy. Then Sun god threw a ray on his body and that cured his leprosy.
---Another example is of the great Poet Baan Bhatt who wrote Chandee Shatak and propitiated Devee with the 6th syllable of his this Shatak to join the cut hands and feet.

(11) A Jain leader Maanatungaa allowed himself with 42 chains and got locked up in a house. He then composed 44 verses of Bhaktaamar Sootra and freed himself.

And there are many more examples....
These examples show that Shlok and Mantra's result depends on Adhikaaree (who deserves) and his Taaratamya (wave length with the Deity)

If you have any other example or your own experience please do write in the Comments section.

Sushma Gupta

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Akshaya Triteeyaa

Akshaya Triteeyaa, or Akshaya Teej, Aakhaa Teej, or Vaishaakh Teej is a very important festival of Northern India. A+Kshaya = A means no, and Kshaya means which is destroyed, thus Akshaya means which cannot be destroyed. Thus whatever is done this day is un-destroyable, imperishable, and lasts for ever, surprisingly enough whether it is a good work or a bad work. And since it is imperishable one must do all good work on this day. Because if any bad work is done on this day its fruit is also imperishable that is one should take care not to do any bad work this day.

--Akshaya Triteeyaa is celebrated when the Sun and the Moon are radiant until the afternoon.
--According to the astrologers Monday (Chandra Vaar, or Som Vaar) ad Rohinee Nakshatra make this day more auspicious.
--Today is the day when the doors of Badaree Naath Jee opens for public.
--Baanke Bihaaree Temple in Vrindaa Van also opens its doors to public on this day, otherwise the idol is covered by cloth throughout the year.

--Most people keep fast, do worship, do Jaap, give alms, give donations, do austerities, take sacred baths so that they can avail their fruits for many lives.
--Many people buy gold, start new ventures on this day.
--There is no need to see for any Muhoort to start any auspicious work today. That is why his day is called Abhujh or Sarv Siddhi Muhoort.
--This day is of Vishnu, so all worship are dedicated to Vishnu - read Vishnu Sahastrnaam etc.
--Since Vishnu and Shiv are not different Shiv Paarvatee are also worshiped this day

Vaishaakh Teej falls on the second half of the Lunar month of Vaishaakh or Vaishaakh Shukla Teej.
This year, in 2014, it is falling on 2nd May.

Sushma Gupta 

Tuesday, February 18, 2014


Importance of Folktales
Every society has its own folktales which are handed over from generation to generation by oral tradition. For the same reason we find many versions of the same tale because oral transmissions are never the same. It is not that every tale has many versions, but still many have. In this process many times the original version is lost and is not traceable at all until it is found in some kind of written format.

Folktales are an essential part of any society and thus constitute the important part of its literature. As the prose, poetry, drama, sayings are the parts of a body of any society's literature, in the same way folktales, fairy tales etc are also its parts.

About five to six centuries before the writings were very scarce and not available freely, as there was no modern paper and no modern printing press. But after that it has become much easier to record many things. And today there are many more means than ever to record anything. Now it has become a necessity to record everything and keep it for future reference and spread widely around.

Difficulties in Maintaining and Spreading Local Folktales
There are some difficulties in maintaining and spreading such literature -
(1) Keeping their any kind of literature for future reference is easier for educated societies, but it is not easy for those societies which have low literacy rate and little facilities for printing and storing. Thus even their own folktales are not preserved for their own children for their future.
(2) Then comes the language. It is big barrier to learn about other societies' literature. To break this barrier translation is the only answer. A good translation is only possible when the person knows the two languages very well. With the limitation of other translation problems, it is necessary to understand both languages and sometimes the society.
(3) It is very difficult to collect, translate and then publish folktales from Third World countries, especially from those countries whose language is less known.

There are still many societies whose folktales are still not available in written form. It is very difficult to collect those tales.

Folktales Translated  in Hindi Language
Keeping these problems in mind I decided to translate some folktales from African countries for our Indian children. I have translated more than 300 folktales in Hindi language from various written, unwritten and printed sources of African countries.

These folktales are mostly from Nigeria, Ethiopia and Tanzania including some from America, Canada, and Europe (Ireland).

I was fascinated with Raven's Tales, so I have collected them separately. They are also about 40 in number.
They all are waiting to be published......
The collection is still growing.....

Objective of This Translation
The objectives of the translation of these tales in Hindi are --
(1) to give these very less known tales to our Hindi knowing children who cannot procure those societies' folk literature in any case, even in English
(2) to build a body of translated foreign folktale literature in Hindi language
(3) to help social researchers in conducting research in these areas

Hopefully these translated stories in Hindi language will soon find their way into the hands of our Indian Hindi speaking children and into the body of our Hindi literature.

Folktales of Various Countries-1
Folktales of Various Countries-2
Touch Read Project

Sushma Gupta

Seeta's Exile

Raam and Seeta are the hero and heroine of Raamaayan. Who does not know them? And this is also very well known that She went to forest twice.

The first time She went with Raam when Raam was exiled for 14 years at the time of His coronation ceremony. When She insisted to go to forest with Him, Raam explained Her a lot to stay at home because of the difficulties of forest and to take care of the grieved parents, but Seetaa said - "Paraadheen Sapanehu Sukh Naaheen...." I cannot live without you so I will follow you only." And She went with Him.

The second time She was especially sent to forest by the same husband Raam who first time asked Her not to accompany Him, the Lord of Tri-Lok, because of the difficulties of the forest. Who could dare to harm Her even a bit when the Lord of Tri-Lok was with Her? When a small crow tried to, then Raam released His arrow which followed him up to the limits of the Tri-Lok and on Naarad Jee's advice he had to ask His forgiveness - "Raakhi na sakahi Koi Raam ko drohee...". After forgiving him He pierced his one eye, so that till today all crows can see only from one eye.

And the same Seetaa was abducted in the forest by Raakshas Raaj Raavan even when two great warriors were there to protect Her. It is shame for those to so called great warriors who could not protect a helpless woman. It took one whole year to recover Her from that Raakshas.

Such Seetaa was exiled again, second time, and that also alone, without telling Her that "you are being sent to forest to be left there alone." and in the condition when all women are taken special care.

Lakshman told Her this only when he reached the point where he was ordered Her to leave - in the wilderness, and wanted to come back to Ayodhyaa. He started crying and requested Her not to blame him for this action.

She could not even guess as why She was left there, so She asked - "Lakshman, Why do you cry so much?" Then only Lakshman tells Her the orders of Raam. Poor Seetaa gets unconscious. When She gathers Herself She Herself tells Lakshman to go back to Ayodhyaa and wishes that no defame should come to Raam because of Her.

Now why do I recall these two sensitive incidents of Seetaa's life? Because both incidents occurred just because of two very low level people - first time it was a maid-servant and second time it was a launderer.

It is really an irony that such low people decided the fate of a royal family.
The other irony is that
(1) first time when Seetaa wanted to accompany Raam, He was trying to stop Her to accompany Him;
(2) while second time Seetaa needed full love, affection and care of Raam, He Himself sent Her to forest without telling Her.
(3) She was left alone to struggle with Her circumstances.

When first time Seetaa was asked to take a test (Agni Pareekshaa), She took it, but when She was asked the same thing second time - to prove Herself pure, She broke and went where She came from. How many times She had to pass the purity test for others?
Is this the fate of a Satee woman?

Sushma Gupta

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Makar Sankraanti

Today is Makar Sankraanti.. Happy Makar Sankraanti to all. It always falls on 14th January. It is the only Hindu festival which is celebrated according to Christian calendar otherwise all other festivals are celebrated according to Moon calendar.

It is celebrated all over India in different flavors
In North in UP and in Karnaatak people call it "Khichadee" or only "Sankraanti".
In Gujaraat it is celebrated as the "Kite Festival".
In Panjaab it is celebrated as "Lohadee" on 13th January, a day before actual Sankraanti and on Sankraanti they donate "Khichadee" to Braahman.
In Tamil Naadu and Aandhra it is called "Pongal" which is celebrated for four days. The day also coincides with the commencement of the Tamil month Thai. The day usually falls on 14th January every year.

What is Makar Sankraanti
There is a Zodiac belt, of 360 degrees, around our Earth which for convenience has been divided in 12 sections.
For convenience these 12 sections of 30 degrees each  have been named as Aries, Taurus, Gemini etc and are called 12 Signs.
The Sun takes full one year to go through this Zodiac, means all the 12 Signs.
When the Sun transits from one Sign to another Sign of the Zodiac, it is called Sankraanti in Sanskrit and Hindi.
Thus there are 12 Sankraanti in one year because of these 12 Signs..

Although all Sankraanti are important but this particular Sankraanti, Makar Sankraanti, is the most important for us. Why is it so? Everybody knows how important the Sun is for us. And everybody knows that the Sun is static, does not move, only the Earth rotates around the Sun along with revolving on its axis also. Because of the Earth's these two movements we experience seasons and day and night respectively.

Because of the Earth's position in relation to Sun, Sun always stays towards the Earth only from 23.5 degree North to 23.5 degree South to the Equator. It takes the Sun 6 months to go to 23.5 degrees South from 23.5 degrees North and the same time to come back to 23.5 degree North.

23.5 degree North point is called the "Line of Cancer" (Kark Rekhaa) and the 23.5 degree South is called the "Line of Capricorn" (Makar Rekhaa). These two extreme points lie in the year on or around 14th of July, the North one when it is peak of Summer; and 14th of January, the South one when it is peak Winter. It happens so because we live in Northern Hemisphere and when the Sun is in Northern Hemisphere we get more sun rays than from the other six months. Since we get more Sun during this period we feel happy and celebrate it.

It is proven that the Sun is important for us. It gives us sunshine, health, good crops, plenty of vegetation, rains etc etc. So with this system, on this day, 14th of January, the Sun starts coming to North (or Northward or Uttaraayan) from 23.5 degree South and that is why we celebrate its coming to us. So this is the reason and  importance of this Sankraanti festival.

Read more about it at  Makar Sankraanti
I am sure in Southern Hemisphere, especially in South Africa, in Australia, and in the southern tip of South America they must be celebrating the Kark Sankraanti in July when the Sun travels Southward.

Sushma Gupta