Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Four Purushaarth

Our Hindu philosophy fixes four type of Purushaarth (efforts) for a human being. They are very logical steps in a human being's life and worth following them. Following them one can reach his goal of life - that is Moksh. These four Purushaarth should be the main objectives of life and be followed - earning money, fulfilling desires of life, to do Dharm to earn Punya (merit) and to follow all these to attain Moksh.

Who think that the Arth or fulfilling of desires or Dharm alone is the most important thing enough  to obtain in the life to attain Moksh, is not correct. All the four are necessary for it and that also in that order. Let us see how.

(1) Arth (Money or Wealth)
The first thing is to earn money, for what? to fulfill the desires. If these objectives are kept in this order, Arth, Kaam, Dharn and Moksh, a man should first earn money, not be cheating, not by unfair means, but by fair means and manage it by spending it to fulfill his own desires and; his family's needs and desires. Why? To sustain himself and to fulfill his responsibilities towards his family. Our scriptures say that any money earned by unfair means  and saved by not providing for one's own and his family's needs, and is if spent on Dharm actions, does not earn Dharm. That is why all money should be earned by fair mean; and after fulfilling one's own and his family's needs, should be used to earn Punya - by donating or doing some Dharm actions.

Hear "fulfillment of needs" words are to be noticed attentively. Why? Because this is this world's nature that nobody's needs are ever fulfilled, whether he lives for thousands of years. So these needs have to be minimum, just to maintain oneself. Why? Because this human body is very valuable. Why? Because only this body is the means to attain Moksh. This Yoni (human body) is the only Yoni is to do any Karm, all others are Bhog Yoni - means one cannot do any Karm in those Yoni. In other than human Yoni you do not have any opportunity to do anything, they are just to pass time, and that also you do not have the power of mind to know it that how much time you passed n that Yoni. And it is said in the scriptures that one is born in Manushya Yoni  after going through 840,000 Yoni; so never waste this life.

(2) Kaam (Desires or Pleasures)
This fairly earned money should be spent first on sustaining himself, so that one can maintain oneself to attain Moksh, and on the fulfillment of his responsibility of his family (Grihasth Aashram). This is necessary, because we have got this human body after passing through 840, 000 Yoni (species). And as said above that to attain Moksh is the ultimate Purushaarth of this human being Yoni, so one must sustain himself by earning money fairly and spending it minimum on himself and on hs family and and rest to use to perform Dharm actions to attain Moksh.

The main objective of fulfilling desires is to fulfilling only those desires which are legitimate, so that one's mind does not astray around after the unfulfilled desires. Because this wandering of mind will not allow them to concentrate on Dharm actions. Therefore before doing any Dharm actions one should satisfy himself with his desires, so that he s not the victim of greed.

(3) Dharm (Punya or Merits)
After earning the money by fair means and fulfilling one's own and his family's desires and needs, a man should aspire for Dharm through the rest of money. All Dharm actions need money to carry out the objectives - Yagya (sacrifices); Daan (alms and donations); building temples, wells, ponds etc etc. Money should not be earned only to satisfy one's pleasures, rather Arth, Kaam and Dharm all are the necessary means to attain Moksh. Only if one can save something from his fairly earned money after spending it on himself and his family, then only he should spend the rest of the money on others for the welfare of himself (to earn Dharm and Punya).Thus whatever little money a man can save, after sustaining himself and his family, he must spend it to earn Dharm.

(4) Moksh
And this earned Dharm, through fairly earned money after spending it on oneself and one's family needs, with satisfied mind, is the means to attain Moksh - the final aim of the human life.

Only those actions which help to practice the Arth, Kaam and Dharm together should be performed. Any of the action which satisfies any one, or even two of them at the expense of the remaining ones, should not be performed.

Sushma Gupta

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